Atlas of acupuncture points with formulas

The right side of the head's skin was made to be nonopaque so that the skull's structure could be seen. For convenience and to avoid computer memory problems, the entire human body was divided into eight parts: The meridians have been considered to reflect a systematic network of empirical knowledge that functions as the basis for acupuncture treatment. Results The acupoints around the top of the head were determined by using two reference points:

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An additional twenty-five sub-areas or points, named by the auricular anatomical name, can be listed internationally as more widely acknowledged points.

Measuring the location of PC8 acupuncture point using X-ray radiography in healthy adults [in Korean]. The partial positioning of acupuncture points and the visualization of the blood-vessel networks under the skin have been achieved with the image datasets of the Visible Human Project.

These regions have acupunctuge large spatial curvatures in the shape of the body's skin that they do not show the systematic structures shown in the anterior and the posterior aspects of the trunk and wih top of the head.

Acupuncture Charts and Books

poins Atlas of Acupuncture Points: Guide to Point Locations and Formulas. With more combined efforts from basic and clinical research, biomedical information on the acupuncture and meridian system should be complete in the near future.

A feasibility study on the migration of tracers after injection at acupoints of small animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH. Image and Vision Computing.

Extraordinary points non-meridian points with indications. This modality for positioning acupoints may modernize acupuncture research and enable acupuncture treatments to be more personalized. With the reference points, the positions of nearby acupoints could be calculated based on some formulae that were obtained from the pictorial and the textual descriptions by the WHO.

As for the acupoints on the anterior aspect, the three reference points on the surface of the thoracic and the abdominal parts were chosen: Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. J Altas Complement Med.

Under a Creative Commons license. For construction of the 3D surface models for the skin and the bones, serial DICOM files were transformed to corresponding 8-bit BMP files, which were put in binary form with the threshold values 10 and for skin and bones, respectively.

Atlas of Acupuncture Points Guide to Point Locations and Formulas

In 3D space, the position of a point can be specified with three values such as the x- y- and z-coordinates. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Complete anatomical location of each point.

Soh, PhD, and M. Discussion Acupuncture meridians in traditional Oriental medicine are known to be channels connecting specific points on the surface of the body to corresponding internal organs. Some of the formulae are shown to be applicable in terms of the coordinates in the reference frame. The current authors contracted with the KISTI and obtained permission to download the image data for use.

Most acupoints of the Bladder meridian in this region are distributed over the back down to the posterior aspect of the knee Fig. The acupoints in the other areas—such as the pelvis, leg, hands, and feet—were also positioned on the 3D virtual body. After overlapping the original 8-bit gray BMP files with those of boundary 2-bit black-and-white images for the surface, the Marching Cube algorithm was applied for polygonizing the surface with triangle-shaped grids.

Atlas of Acupuncture Points with Formulas

The positions of acupincture acupoints in the sacral region depend on the structure of the pelvic bones and the posterior sacral foramina, as shown in Figure 5. In addition, many novel ways of representing medical knowledge have been introduced by integrating concepts of computer graphics and artificial intelligence as the data on formulzs human body have accumulated, and medical knowledge definitely includes therapeutic experiences with old traditional medical systems.

Three-dimensional views with positioned acupoints around the head from various sides: The subscripts x, y, and z are the x- y- and z-components, respectively, of the vectors in the frame coordinates. One of formuoas most frequently used acupoints is ST 36 Zusanli on the anterior aspect of the leg between the two reference acupoints ST 35 and ST Yin C, Koh H.

R ecent advances in technology in the computer hardware and software industries are now making it possible to address many issues that could not be addressed several decades ago.

The goal of this research was to position all the standardized acupuncture points on the entire caupuncture body based on a 3-dimensional 3D virtual body. Global trends and performances of acupuncture research.

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